Unless most of the traffic to your articles comes from the links that you actually share (in this case you can use a link with redirect where you can put tracking pixels), and not from users visiting Medium directly, there is really no way for you to do that.
You can try to reach out to Medium directly and convince them to put your audience tracking pixels on their website (your articles). But that most likely won't happen.
You can reach out to their marketing team and ask them to create, share/upload the audiences from their tracking pixels to your platforms (say Facebook ads for example). But that most likely won't happen either.