The 'Cobra Effect' aka the law of unintended consequences: In 19th century India under British colonial rule, authorities decided there were too many venomous cobras in the streets of Delhi, making life uncomfortable for the British residents and their families.
To solve this, they offered a reward for every dead cobra residents would bring in.
Soon, enterprising locals began to breed cobras to make a living from the bounty.
The government caught on to this and cancelled the program. The breeders, resentful of their rules and angered by their actions, decided to release their cobras back onto the streets, thereby tripling the population from before the government program.
--- From The Laws of Human Nature by Robert Greene (of the 48 Laws of Power fame)