1. Amplify great content with paid traffic. This the best pound-for-pound return on effort/speed way to do it. Write a great piece that is relevant to your audience. Spend a little on Facebook or some other paid traffic source sending visitors to it. If it is high quality it will get shares and back links. Waiting for people to organically find it is too slow and to reliant on chance. You can also use content amplification networks like Taboola and Outbrain but these are known for bot traffic and fake clicks. They've raised a ton of venture capital and now need to meet their numbers. They seem not to have learned from Enron and Worldcom!
2. SEO: Write content pieces that target long tail keywords in your market and then do SEO. This is a whole nutha topic on its own. It can work well and keep driving traffic for years to come but it usually takes some time (months) before you start seeing results. The organic traffic you get, though, converts better than any other source.
3. Guest posting on higher traffic sources: This can also work well provided the host site for your guest post gets a A LOT of traffic and you also write your guest post in a way that gives visitors a reason to click back to your site. This last part is key. Early on we made a mistake with this. We wrote a post that got almost 30,000 uniques on the host blog but sent us less than 1000.